Intro to Veganism
The word "veganism" denotes a philosophy and way of living which seeks to exclude—as far as is possible and practical—all forms of exploitation of, and cruelty to, animals for food, clothing or any other purpose; and by extension, promotes the development and use of animal-free alternatives for the benefit of humans, animals and the environment. In dietary terms it denotes the practice of dispensing with all products derived wholly or partly from animals.
It is a peaceful philosophy, put into action, which takes into account our own limitations and the constraints imposed upon us by the society in which we live. A vegan lifestyle is one that tries to avoid harming others—human and animal—“as far as is possible and practical.”
Most of us don't want to be cruel. Yet there is cruelty throughout animal agriculture: depriving animals of mothers; forcing animals to grossly overproduce flesh, eggs, and milk; mutilating and amputating animals' body parts without painkillers; transporting animals long distances in intense heat with no water; severe and sadistic violence in slaughterhouses — and much more.
Since the animal products most often used in baked goods are eggs and dairy, let's focus on those two industries...
From United Poultry Concerns:
Mercy For Animals reports that:
A common method used to dispose of unwanted male chicks is grinding them up alive. This method can result in unspeakable horrors as a research scientist described, “Even after twenty seconds, there were only partly damaged animals with whole skulls.” In other words, fully conscious chicks were partially ground up. Eyewitness accounts at commercial hatcheries indicate similar horrors with chicks being slowly dismembered on augers carrying them towards a trash bin or manure spreader.When we buy eggs or products that contain eggs, this is what we do to chicks on their first and only day of life.
United Poultry Concerns explains: “Because the male chicken of the egg industry cannot lay eggs, and has not been genetically manipulated for profitable meat production, he is of no use to the egg industry. Destruction of unwanted male chicks is a worldwide practice.”
This video reveals a sample of what is done to chickens in commercial egg operations. Some parts of the video may be disturbing and difficult to watch. If that's the case, please ask yourself, “If I can't even bear to see this animal cruelty, how can I justify participating in it?” As ethical, responsible human beings, we have an obligation to be aware of how our conscious, intentional, and avoidable actions affect others. By recognizing the full impact of our decisions, we can make informed ones.
If you cannot stomach the whole video at once, you can view sections of it at a time. At least watch how the newborn male chicks at the hatchery are treated; that comes at the beginning of the video.
Sometimes it takes a jolt like this to compel people to change long-time habits. Seeing what happens to the animals often makes viewers seriously question their eating choices and consider kinder alternatives.
When you drop eggs from your diet, you no longer have to deny or rationalize the horrible side-effects of that lifestyle choice, you no longer have to push violent images of hen hatcheries and other parts of the egg industry out of your head, and you are no longer obligated to watch videos such as these.
The hens are repeatedly mounted by the young roosters. After about a year, the roosters are killed and a new batch is brought in to mate with the hens, who by this time are worn out and bedraggled. By 18 months old, many of the hens have lost half or more of their feathers. Their misery is compounded at slaughter time, from being starved for two or more days days beforehand. (Most animals raised for meat, milk, or eggs are starved for a period of time before being killed, as a cost-cutting measure.) The slaughter itself, described later in this section, is violent and filled with pain and agony.
This video is of a hatchery that produces "meat" chickens, but the hellish conditions are not markedly different than those of a layer hen hatchery. In any case, when you buy eggs or chicken—even if labeled (or more likely mislabeled) "free range"—this is almost always how the parents of the hens or "broiler" chickens are treated. It's a thoroughly miserable existence.
Laying an egg requires resources from the body, notably calcium, the main ingredient in the egg shell. The artificially high rate of laying takes a toll on the hen's body, robbing her of calcium and often causing her bones to grow weak.
Hens have also been bred to lay larger eggs. The combination of so many eggs and the larger size of the eggs increases the chance of complications such as prolapse, a potentially fatal condition in which the egg sticks to the hen's uterine wall. In addition, researchers have found that pushing hens to lay more eggs can lead to malignant tumors in the oviduct (the tube through which the eggs pass).
These hardships are endured by virtually all hens in the egg industry, including those in "free range" and organic operations.
Any egg business is based ultimately on forcing the birds who lay the eggs to produce more eggs than normal. This in and of itself makes "humane eggs" practically impossible.
In nearly all but the very smallest commercial egg operations (regardless of whether they're cage-free or "free-range") hens are more crowded than normal, and are forced to compete for limited space. Furthermore, when hens are caged—which is the fate for 95 percent of the laying hens in the U.S. egg industry—they're denied any solid ground at which to peck. Being deprived of normal pecking opportunities is highly stressful for chickens, because pecking is such a core, innate behavior in the species. In these circumstances, chickens express their frustration and strong need to peck by turning on each other. The egg industry's response, in the vast majority of cases, has not been to give hens more room and a plot of earth to peck, but to "debeak" them.
Prisoned Chickens, Poisoned Eggs describes the process:
An undercover investigator employed in the early 1990s by Hudson's hatchery and breeder farms on the Eastern Shore of Maryland said that after a few weeks the company let him debeak chickens. In the process of having their beaks burned off, the birds chirped loudly and defecated profusely: “In pain, these birds flap their wings, push against the machine, and often lose control of their bowels,” the investigator wrote. The stench was terrible: “Smoke rises from the place where the beak meets the machine as the bird loses at least an eighth of an inch of her beak...Because of the speed at which workers handle the chicks, 'hack jobs' result in massive beak loss to some chicks, leaving them unable to eat.” Many birds die within 24 hours from shock and blood loss.Because the egg industry uses such a high volume of birds, it treats birds killed by various handling processes as an acceptable business loss.
Ian Duncan, a poultry researcher at the University of Guelph in Ontario, notes that that chicks' beaks are filled with pain receptors, and that when the ends of their beaks are removed, chicks experience "acute and chronic pain."
In sanctuaries, hens can live ten years or more. Their wild ancestors have lifespans of up to 25 years.
Lots more to come...